Cornerstonepublications.org, inc は、フィロン(ラ:Philon Alexandrinus)、という人物を次のように紹介している。

  • ' Philo (c. 20 BC - AD 40) - also known as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judeaus, was a Jewish religious instructor and philosopher born in Alexandria , Egypt . Biographical details concerning him are found in his own works and in the works of Josephus (Antiquities xviii. 8). His brother, Alexander, may be mentioned in Acts 4:6. The Works of Philo provide first-hand information of Jewish religious practices, customs, and beliefs mentioned in the Gospels and the book of Hebrews. His works contain references to the Son of God, The Word, sheep with no shepherd, fishermen letting down their nets, the rich man and his treasure, the woman taken in adultery, rising up in the air to be with the Lord forever, being tested like gold by the fire. Philo provides details of Roman scourgings and crucifixions of Jewish religious leaders in Egypt that occurred at approximately the same time period as the crucifixion of Jesus.'

    アレクサンドリアのフィロンともユダヤ人フィロンとも知られている宗教指導者・哲学者。エジプトはアレクサンドリア生まれ。その生涯は、彼自身の著作、ならびにヨセフスの著作(『ユダヤ古代史』18巻8章)から知られる。「使徒言行録」(4.6)に登場するアレクサンドロは、フィロンの兄弟と考えられよう。フィロンの著作は、新・旧約聖書に述べられたユダヤ人の宗教的慣習や風習、さらには信仰に関する直接の伝聞情報(第一次情報)となるものである。たとえば、御子・御言葉・羊飼いに見捨てられた羊・網を捨ててイエスに従った漁師たち・金持ちの男とその財産・不貞を犯した女・復活昇天しとこしえに神の右に座し給うた出来事・金を溶かすがごとき火で試みられたこと、などにも言及している。またフィロンは、ローマ人から受けた苦難や、在エジプトユダヤ人宗教指導者たちの磔刑に関する詳細にも触れている。時あたかもそれらは、イエスの磔刑と同じ時期の出来事である。(アノニマス 以下同じ)

現在フィロンの著作は、ギリシア語・ラテン語底本と英語対訳の体裁において、"Loeb Classical Library"(ローブ古典叢書) に、十二巻本(補遺二巻含む)として収録されている。


さてこのページでは、上掲十二巻本中、第九巻に収められたフィロンの論稿のうち、"De providentia(On Providence: Fragment 1,2)" (未翻訳)を通読し感じたところを、一言記しておくことにする。なお以下引用する英語翻訳は、Cornerstonepublications.org, inc から提供されているもので、著作権法第32条に基づき使用している。他意はない。心からの感謝を申し上げたい。

"De providentia(On Providence: Fragment 1,2)"(「摂理について」又は「恩寵について」断片1・2)自体は、冊子として単独に現存するものではない。「ペトロの宣教」の事情がそうであったように(→(53))、この論稿は、ニカイア公会議(325)にも参加した教会史の父、カイサレアのエウセビオス(263頃-339) "Praeparatio Evangelica"(『福音の準備』)における引用を介して、知られたものである。

  • ' Why, then, does he use the expression, "In the image of God I made Man,"{1}{Genesis 1:27.A.} as if he were speaking of that of some other God, and not of having made him in the likeness of himself? This expression is used with great beauty and wisdom. For it was impossible that anything mortal should be made in the likeness of the most high God the Father of the universe; but it could only be made in the likeness of the second God, who is the Word of the other; for it was fitting that the rational type in the soul of man should receive the impression of the Word of God, since the God below the Word is superior to all and every rational nature; and it is not lawful for any created thing to be made like the God who is above reason, and who is endowed with a most excellent and special form appropriated to himself alone.',from Eusebius P. E. 7.21.

    モーセは、次のような表現を用いている。「私は神の形に人をつくった」(「創世記」1.27)と。しかしこれではまるで、自身の姿に似せて人をつくったのではなく、何か別の神に似せて人をつくったかのような口調である。どうしてであろうか。モーセのこの表現は、じつにみごとな美しさと叡智を伴っている。というのは、いかなるものであろうと死すべきさだめにあるものが、この宇宙の生みの親なる至高神の似姿としてつくられるということなど不可能なことであり、他でもない御言葉なる第二位格の神に似せてつくられえたにすぎないからである。したがって、神の言葉であるという印象を、人間がその魂の理性的側面において抱くであろう、と(モーセが)考えたのは当を得たことであった。なぜなら御言葉に宿る神自身は、ありとしあらゆる理性を超えているからである。またいかなる被造物であれ、理を超えているばかりか、自身だけにかなう超絶した特別の形(a most excellent and special form)であるその神のようにつくられたというのも、正当ではない。

ちなみに、ヘブライ語底本を厳格に逐語訳したロバート・ヤングの"Young's Literal Translation"において「創世記」1章27節全体は、次のようになっている。
  • ' And God prepareth the man in His image; in the image of God He prepared him, a male and a female He prepared them.'


  • ' But concerning the quantity of the essence, if indeed it really has any existence, we must also speak. God took care at the creation of the world that there should be an ample and most sufficient supply of matter, so exact that nothing might be wanting and nothing superfluous. For it would have been absurd in the case of particular artisans, for them, when they are occupied in making anything, and especially anything of much value, to calculate the exact quantity of materials which they require; but for that being who is the original inventor of numbers and measures, and the qualities which exist and are found in them, to omit to take care to have just what was proper. I will speak now with all freedom, and say that the world had need for its fabrication of some precise quantity of materials, neither more nor less; since otherwise it would not have been perfect, nor complete in all its parts, being thoroughly well made, nor would it have been made perfect of a perfect essence.

    しかし「何か或るもの(the essence)」のうち「量」に関し、仮にもそれがなにがしかの真存在であると言うならば、この世界の創造に際して神は、完全無欠なほどに豊富で欠けることのない物の供給が必要であることを考量していた、と我々の側からも言わなければならない。つまりはこういうことである。その存在が見い出されている数や限度や量を最初に発明した者自身が、そのままそっくりを考量し忘れたとするするならば、秀でた職人たちの場合を例にとって言うと、何かとりわけ非常に価値あるものの製作に専念する際に必要となる資材の正確な量を見積もること自体、ばかげた仕草になっていたであろ。わたしは今、なにものにも囚われずに語っているつもりである。この世界の建造には、なにがしか完璧なまでの正確な量が必要であった。そうでなければ、世界のみならずそのすべての部分も完全ではなかったであろう。世界は、完全な「何か或るもの(the essence)」を完全なものに仕上げてはいないとしても、しかしじつによく作られている、とわたしは言いたい。

    For it is an indispensable part of a workman who is thoroughly well skilled in his art, before he begins making any thing, to see that his materials are exactly sufficient; therefore a man, even if he were most eminently skilled in the knowledge of other things, still if he were not able altogether to avoid error, which is so natural to mortals, would be very likely to be deceived in respect of the quantity of materials which he required when he was about to proceed to the exercise of art; sometimes adding to it as too little, and sometimes taking away from it as too much. But that Being who is, as it were, a kind of fountain of all knowledge, was not likely to supply anything in deficient or in superfluous quantities, inasmuch as he employs measures elaborated in a most wonderful manner, so as to display perfect accuracy, and all of the most praiseworthy character. But he who is inclined to talk nonsense, at random, will easily do it, looking upon the different works of all artisans as causes, and as having been made in a more excellent manner, either by the addition or by the subtraction of some material or other. But it is the peculiar occupation of sophistry to quibble and cavil; while it is the task of wisdom to investigate accurately everything that exists in nature.'ibid.



「何か或るもの(the essence)」のうちの「量(quantity)」を取り上げながらも、実世界におけるその現実を通して、「何か或るもの」の完全さを洞察することができないでいる人間のはかなき不完全さをこそ、むしろ現象させようとしていたことが分かる香りある弁証となっている。


  • ' Do you say then that there is providence in such a vast confusion and disorder of affairs? For, in fact, which of the circumstances and occurrences of human life is regulated by any principle or order? which of them is not full of all kinds of irregularity and destruction? Are you the only person who is ignorant that blessings in complete abundance are heaped upon the most wicked and worthless of mankind? such, for instance, as wealth, a high reputation, honor in the eyes of the multitude, authority? moreover, health, a good condition of the outward senses, beauty, strength, and unimpeded enjoyment of all good things, by means of an abundance of supplies and resources and preparations of every kind, and in consequence of the peaceful good fortune and good condition of the body? But all the lovers and practicers of wisdom and prudence, and every kind of virtue, everyone of them I may almost say, are poor, unknown, inglorious, and in a mean condition.',from Eusebius P. E. 8.14.


  • ' God is not a tyrant who practices cruelty and violence and all the other acts of insolent authority like an inexorable master, but he is rather a sovereign invested with a humane and lawful authority, and as such he governs all the heaven and the whole world in accordance with justice. And there is no form of address with which a king can more appropriately be saluted than the name of father; for what, in human relationships, parents are to their children, that also sovereigns are to their states, and God towards the world, having adapted these two most beautiful things by the unchangeable laws of nature, by an indissoluble union, namely the authority of the leader with the anxious care of a relation; for as parents are not wholly indifferent to even ill-behaved children, but, having compassion on their unfortunate dispositions, they are careful and anxious for their welfare, looking upon it as an act of relentless and irreconcileable enemies to insult and increase their misfortunes, but as the part of friends and relations to lighten their disasters: and indeed in the excess of their liberality they even give more to such children than to those who have always been well conducted, knowing well that to these last their own moderation is at all times an abundant resource and means of riches, but that the others have no other hope except in their parents, and that if they are disappointed in that they will be destitute of even the necessaries of life.'ibid.



  • ' So in the same manner, God, how is the father of all rational understanding, takes care of all those beings who are endowed with reason, and exercises a providential power for the protection even of those who are living in a blamable manner, giving them at the same time opportunity of correcting their errors, and nevertheless not violating the dictates of his own merciful nature, of which virtue and humanity are the regular attendants, being willing to have their dwelling in the God-created world; this one argument now, do thou, O my soul, take to thyself, and store up within thyself as a sacred deposit, and this other also as consistent with and in perfect harmony with it. Do not ever be so deceived and wander from the truth to such a degree as to think any wicked man happy, even though he may be richer than Croesus, and more sharp-sighted than Lyceus, and more powerful than Milo of Crotena, and more beautiful than Ganymede,

    "Whom the immortal gods, for beauty's sake,

    Did raise up from the vile earth to heaven,

    To be the cup-bearer of mighty Jove."{1}{homer's Iliad 20.234.}


    • 不死の神々、其の麗しきにあくがれ給ひ、

    Accordingly, such a man, having shown his own daemon, I mean to say his own mind, to be the slave of ten thousand thousand different masters, such as love, appetite, pleasure, fear, pain, folly, intemperance, cowardice, injustice, he can never possibly be happy, even if the multitude, being utterly misled and deprived of their judgment, were to think him so, being corrupted by a double evil, pride and vain opinion, by which souls without ballast must infallibly be tossed about and driven out of their course; for these evils, above all others, injure the chief multitude of mankind.


    If, then, fixing the eyes of the mind steadily upon the truth, you should be inclined to contemplate the providence of God as far as the powers of human reason are capable of doing it, then, when you have attained to a closer conception of the true and only good, you will laugh at those things which belong to men which you for some time admired; for what is worse is always honored in the absence of what is better, as it then usurps its place; but when that which is better appears, then that which is worse retires, and is contented with the second prize. Therefore, admiring that godlike excellence and beauty, you will by all means perceive that none of the things previously mentioned were by themselves thought worthy of the better portion by God. On which account the mines of silver and gold are the most worthless portion of the earth, which is altogether and wholly unfit for the production of fruits and food; for abundance of riches is not like food, a thing without which one cannot live. And the one great and manifest test of all these things is hunger, by which it is seen what is in truth really necessary and useful; for a person when oppressed by hunger would gladly give all the treasures in the whole world in exchange for a little food; but when there is an abundance of necessary things poured out in a plentiful and unlimited supply, and flowing over all the cities of the land, then we, the citizens, indulging luxuriously in the good things provided by nature, are not contented to stop at them alone, but set up satiated insolence as the guide of our lives, and devoting ourselves to the acquisition of silver and gold, and of everything else by which we hope to acquire gain, proceed in everything like blind men, no longer exciting the eyes of our intellect by reason of our covetousness, so far as to see that riches are but the burden of the earth, and are the cause of continual and uninterrupted war instead of peace.'ibid.


  • ' For as the sun and moon exist in consequence of Providence, so also do all things in heaven, even though we are unable to trace out accurately the respective natures and powers of each, and are, therefore, reduced to silence about them; and earthquakes, and pestilences, and the fall of thunderbolts, and things of that kind, are said indeed to be sent by God, but, in reality, they are not so, for God is absolutely not the cause of any evil whatever of any kind, but the natural changes of the elements produce these effects, not as circumstances which guide nature, but as those which are followed by necessary results, and which do themselves follow naturally upon their antecedent causes. And if some people, who think themselves entitled to immunity meet with some injury from these things, they are still not to find fault with their management and dispensation; for, in the first place, it does not follow, that if some persons are reckoned virtuous among men, they are so in real truth; since the criteria by which God judges are far more accurate than any of the tests by which the human mind is guided. And, in the second place, prophetic wisdom loves to contemplate those things in the world which are of the most comprehensive nature, as in the case of monarchies, and in the governments of armies, we see that it is not any obscure, ignoble, or chance person who is appointed to govern the cities or the armies.


    And some persons say that as on occasion of the slaying of tyrants, it is lawful that their relations also should be put to death, in order that transgressions may be checked by the terrible magnitude of the punishment inflicted: in like manner in pestilential diseases, it is necessary that some of those who are not guilty should be involved in the destruction, in order that others who are at a distance may learn moderation. Besides that, it is inevitable that those who are exposed to a pestilential atmosphere must become diseased just as all persons who are exposed to a storm on board a ship must be all exposed to equal danger. But those wild beasts which are courageous have been created; for we must not suppress the truth (as if one were to anticipate the defense likely to be made by a man of powerful eloquence and tare it to pieces beforehand), in order that men may, by practising against them, acquire hardihood for the contests of war; for gymnastic exercises and continued hunting train men and inure their souls in a greater degree even than their bodies to rely upon their own courage, and energy, and strength, so as to disregard the sudden attacks of their enemies.'ibid.










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